Fujitsu Interstage BPM Version 10

Fujitsu is releasing version 10 of their Interstage BPM, and I had a chance for an in-depth demo a few weeks ago in advance of today’s announcement. On the design side, their new version of Studio now allows business analysts and IT to work together, and includes forms development. In terms of end-user functionality, there’s some improvements to workflow to enable collaboration, and new dashboard functionality. Most exciting (I think) is full support for multi-tenanting in order to allow for shared services and SaaS.

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Key new features in Studio V10:

  • Full application development rather than just process modeling in Studio: create AJAX forms (rich user interfaces) to be attached at a point in the process, BAM designer, and simulation.
  • BPMN compliance, including annotation capabilities for inline documentation, plus some extensions to the notation in order to show things such as the presence of a form attached at a step. I explicitly asked which BPMN objects are not supported, and got a sort of fuzzy answer, that is, that they support all the BPMN objects required for their modeling paradigm. There are two other BPMN views besides the baseline standard: one showing the role at each step — which assumes that you’re not using swimlanes for roles — and one version with coloured swimlanes.
  • WYSIWYG forms designer allows widgets to be dragged and dropped from the palette, including complex widgets such as Google maps, breadcrumbs, and file uploaders: this is almost a mashup builder rather than just basic forms. There’s also BPM-specific widgets to allow you to easily add controls both for a work item’s metadata as well as functionality. You can add validation rules to fields.
  • Once a form is created in the forms designer, it can be dragged onto a workflow step to assign the form to that step.
  • The analytics designer is a separate perspective in Studio that allows creation of alert rules that will fire based on conditions in a workflow, then take an action: open an alert window to a user, generate a chart, or trigger another action. Charts are defined as independent objects, then a presentation dashboard can be built including a selection of charts, including role-based security.
  • There’s a built-in decision tables functionality that separates rules from processes, so that process-related rules can be changed independently and will affect work in progress. I still don’t like this approach as much as an external rules system, but this is much better than using just a simple expression engine with “rules” embedded at points in the process. Interstage can, of course, also support third-party rules engines plugged in for more comprehensive rules capabilities.
  • Simulation based on predefined values or historical values, plus the specification of resource costs. No tools for automatically identifying areas requiring improvement, although they hinted that this was in the works.

End-user interface updates:

  • The user interface is now created primarily using the forms created in the new form designer. In the sample that I saw in the demo, there was a multi-page form to represent a process instance, where the first page was text fields, and second page was a Google Map with the property location related to the process instance tagged on it: a nice example of the actual use of a Google Maps mashup in a business application. The form provides access to the instance metadata and any attachments, then allows the user to fill out additional form data and complete the task.
  • Depending on the user’s privileges, there’s an administrator’s view of the process, and a browser-based (Flash) process designer to allow either complete process modeling or (more likely) to modify a process in flight. Changes made to a single process in this environment can be migrated to all process in flight.

Interstage custom app with form, Google map

Interstage BPM enforces stringent J2EE compliance, such that any process model, rule, etc. built automatically become a web service that can be exposed.

Application partitioning capabilities to allow for SaaS: support for multiple applications on a single BPM instance with fully partitioned data, security and administration so that it appears as a private BPM instance, and utilization can be tracked by application. This is great for large enterprises that want to run virtual independent BPM environments for different divisions or applications, as well as companies that might want to use Interstage as a foundation for a SaaS BPM offering.

Fujitsu Process Discovery

A few weeks ago, I had the chance to see Fujitsu’s new process discovery product/service in action. Unlike the usual sort of process discovery, which involves business analysts running around and documenting what people are doing, this automates the discovery of business processes by examining logs of existing applications.

The problem with the manual process discovery — based on observation, interview and operations/procedures manuals — is that it’s very labor-intensive, and can produce inaccurate results. The inaccuracies can be due to the level of experience of the business analysts, as well as what Michael zur Muehlen refers to as “process confabulation”: when you ask someone about what they do and they don’t have a good answer, they’re just as likely to make something up as they are to admit that they don’t know. I’ve seen this a lot, and tend to base most of what I do in process discovery on observation rather than interviews so that I can see the actual process; my ears perk up when I hear “well, we’re supposed to do it this way, but this is what we actually do”.

In a lot of cases, information about the business processes that are actually executed is embodied within existing enterprise applications, and saved to databases and log files. These could be supply chain, ERP, databases, legacy transactional systems or any other system that records events in some fashion. It is possible to install measurement tools on these systems to track what’s happening, or modify these systems to emit events, but Fujitsu’s new process discovery product/service extracts events from existing database and logs without modifications to existing systems. The real magic, however, comes in the software that Fujitsu has created to visualize those events in the context of a business process, and separate the “happy path” from the exceptions. Once that’s done, it’s possible to look at the ways to reduce exceptions, since the events that cause those exceptions are well understood.

I use the term “product/service” since all this manipulation and analysis requires some amount of training, and Fujitsu currently offers it as a consulting service, although there are standard software portions involved as part of that service. They have three levels of service, ranging from a basic extraction and visualization, to a more comprehensive analysis, to a customized offering. They’ve been using this with customers in Japan for some time — hence the Japanese case studies — and have recently launched their North American trial. Furthermore, it’s not specific to Fujitsu Interstage customers: this is really an independent effort of looking at your existing systems and optimizing your business processes. If that led to you buying Interstage, they’d be thrilled, but it’s not a prerequisite.

Looking at the new toys is the fun part of my job, so Keith Swenson took me for a test drive of the visualization tool. We were looking at a map of the events extracted from database logs for about 5,000 process instances, which were read into the process viewer using a standard CSV import. The straight-through path is detected and shown — in this case, it came from 632 process instances — but a slider control allowed us to change the threshold and add in more of the instances, up to 100% (which showed a pretty complex mess of a process).

Process flow, straight-through path

Process flow, straight-through + 15% exceptions

Process flow, straight-through + 40% exceptions

Process flow, all paths

That’s a pretty cool visualization, since the exception paths appear dynamically as the slider moves, but you really want to pick a simple baseline version of the process using the slider control — not the trimmed-down straight-through path, but one that includes the most common routes — then select one or more exception paths to overlay on it. Exception paths can be sorted and filtered for selection, using criteria including frequency, deviation, repetition, backtracks, and specific transitions.

Visually, the straight-through path shows as a thick black line, the alternative routes as gray lines, and the selected exception paths are in red. Although the number beside the black lines indicate the number of process instances that traveled that path, we figured out that the number beside the red (exception) lines indicated the step in the process sequence, since that’s more relevant when you’re tracking exceptions. Other information about transition times can also be shown, indicating bottlenecks in the process.

Exception paths overlaid on base process map

The tool is intended to be used interactively by a knowledgeable analyst in order to guide the views that will highlight the trouble spots: sort of like using simulation with real data. This isn’t an automated tool that takes data in one end and spits out the answers at the other; it’s meant to drive discussion and analysis, not replace it.

Latency on paths indicating bottlenecks

Keith showed me the results of three other case studies, and a couple of interesting effects of the data visualization and analysis that would make a quality manager’s heart sing:

  • In a hard drive manufacturing plant, the assembly portion of the process was simple, but the pre-process and test lines were much more complex. Eliminating the exception routes to improve the process actually had the effect of improving the quality of the drives being manufactured on the line.
  • In the second case, the processes of two different branch offices were compared, and it was identified that in one, half of the orders that their customers placed were for items that were not in stock, whereas the other office shipped most of their orders from their existing stock. There was no judgement about which was better, but it’s useful to be able to identify that one is using a just-in-time approach to reduce inventory costs, whereas the other is focused on reducing time to ship.
  • The third case showed some time analysis of processes to see the degree of deviation in the transition time between two steps. This is a classic statistical analysis, where a larger deviation (usually) indicates a higher potential for process improvement.

Typical benefits that their customers have seen so far are to identify and optimize inefficient processes, identify exceptions and infrequent paths, visualize the gap between the expected and actual processes, identify location-specific differences, and locate process bottlenecks.

This doesn’t, of course, consider all of the purely manual processes that are not captured in system logs, but would greatly reduce the amount of work required to map out the processes that do touch these systems in some way. Furthermore, it happens with little or no time investment from business people and analysts, hence has less impact on the customer than other discovery and analysis techniques. The reality is that this would work great in combination with some skilled manual discovery; maybe Lombardi should use this as part of their process discovery service offerings 🙂